Monday, July 21, 2014

Implementation of the Appeals Judicial Approach and
Culture (AJAC) Project

Examination and General Matters - Phase 2

The IRS has issued a new memorandum here with respect to what the IRS call AJAC. This is memorandum states:
The purpose of this memorandum is to provide guidance to Appeals employees pertaining to the second phase of implementation of the AJAC Project recommendations with respect to Examination cases worked in Appeals and general matters.
The AJAC Project is reinforcing Appeals’ quasi-judicial approach to the way it handles cases, with the goal of enhancing internal and external customer perceptions of a fair, impartial and independent Office of Appeals.
The attachments to this memorandum provide guidance pertaining to all Appeals employees who open/close cases and hold hearings, conferences or otherwise resolve open case issues in the affected Examination work streams in Appeals.
For practitioners who deal with Appeals, careful attention should be given to these changes.

Friday, June 27, 2014

Keeping Records - It Is Important

In a recent Tax Court decision, here, Garza v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2014-121, the Tax Court found that the taxpayer was not entitled to deduct unreimbursed employee expenses.

The taxpayer was an outside salesperson who was required to use his own vehicle in his work, but was not reimbursed for his expenses.  He tried to deduct these expenses.

The taxpayer did not maintain a separate log for his mileage. Rather, the taxpayer maintained his records on his calendar. 

Taxpayer would record his odometer mileage in a calendar at the beginning of each month.  When the taxpayer filed his 2010 tax return, he deducted $24,048 in mileage expense and meals and entertainment.  He alleged that he had driven 40,171  business miles.  The taxpayer conceded that some of these miles were commuting miles.

The law is clear that a taxpayer must keep records to support the amounts reported on a tax return.  Section 6001 of the Internal Revenue Code; Treas. Reg. Sec. 1.6001-1(a), (e).

The Tax Court in Garza stated:

A taxpayer must substantiate deductions by keeping and producing adequate records that enable the Commissioner to determine the taxpayer’s correct liability. Sec. 6001; Hradesky v. Commissioner, 65 T.C. 87, 89-90 (1975), aff’d per curiam, 540 F.2d 821 (5th Cir. 1976); Meneguzzo v. Commissioner, 43 T.C. 824, 831-832 (1965).

When a taxpayer establishes that he or she paid or incurred a deductible expense but fails to establish the amount of the deduction, the Court normally may estimate the amount allowable as a deduction. Cohan v. Commissioner, 39 F.2d 540, 543-544 (2d Cir. 1930); Vanicek v. Commissioner, 85 T.C. 731, 742-743 (1985). There must be sufficient evidence in the record, however, to permit the Court to conclude that a deductible expense was paid or incurred in at least the amount allowed. Williams v. United States, 245 F.2d 559, 560 (5th Cir. 1957).  Furthermore, deductions for certain expenses are subject to strict substantiation requirements, and an allowance therefore may not be estimated by the Court.  The expenses in issue here fall within that category. See, e.g., Schladweiler v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo. 2000-351, aff’d, 28 Fed. Appx. 602 (8th Cir. 2002).

The taxpayer in Garza failed to follow the rules in Section 274(d) of the Code which require certain substantation requirements. 

The Tax Court further stated:

As relevant here, the term “listed property” includes passenger automobiles such as petitioner’s truck. See sec. 280F(d)(4)(A)(i). To satisfy the requirements of section 274(d), a taxpayer generally must maintain adequate records or produce sufficient evidence corroborating his own statement, establishing the amount, date, and business purpose of each expenditure or business use of property. Sec. 1.274-5T(b)(6), (c)(1), Temporary Income Tax Regs., 50 Fed. Reg. 46016-46017 (Nov. 6, 1985).

The Tax Court found that while the taxpayer did have business expenses in relation to his employment, but he did not keep the required records as required to support a deduction.

In addition the Tax Court said:

that “adequate records” generally consist of an account book, a diary, a log, a statement of expense, trip sheets, or a similar record made at or near the time of the expenditure or use, along with supporting documentary evidence. The strict substantiation requirements of section 274(d) for vehicle expenses must be met even where the optional standard mileage rate is used. Sec. 1.274-5(j)(2), Income Tax Regs.

Even though the taxpayer in Garza had business expenses, his failure to follow the requirements of Section 274(d) of the Code allowed the Tax Court to disallow the deductions claimed.

While this seems somewhat of an unfair result, the Tax Court followed the Code and Regulations.  Had the taxpayer been more detailed in his record keeping, it is likely he would have been allowed the deduction. His excuse that it was “too much to do,” did not get him the deduction.

Clients need to be made aware of the requirements of recordkeeping for their business expenses.  See Baker v. Commissioner, here, where a truck driver who lost his records proved his expenses with estimates.
See Baker v. Commissioner, TC Memo 2014-122, where a truck driver who lost his records proved his expenses with estimates.

Friday, February 21, 2014

The DIrty Dozen for 2014

The Internal Revenue Service today issued its “Dirty Dozen”, here, list of tax scams for 2014 and has reminded taxpayers to use caution during tax season to protect themselves against a wide range of schemes ranging from identity theft to return preparer fraud.
The Dirty Dozen lists a variety of common scams taxpayers can encounter at any point during the year. But many of these schemes peak during filing season as people prepare their tax returns.
"Taxpayers should be on the lookout for tax scams using the IRS name,” said IRS Commissioner John Koskinen. “These schemes jump every year at tax time. Scams can be sophisticated and take many different forms. We urge people to protect themselves and use caution when viewing e-mails, receiving telephone calls or getting advice on tax issues.”

Monday, February 17, 2014

IRS Helpful Links
Find Tax Exempt Organizations
This link will take you to all of the states and a list of the tax exemption organizations that have been approved by the IRS.
IRS Service Guide
The IRS has published a Service Guide that has a number of helpful list.  You will find the list here.

Friday, January 17, 2014

Downloads from the IRS

Downloads from the IRS 
Taxpayers can now download their tax returns and other documents from the IRS.  See here to:

Go here for specific instructions. 


Sunday, January 12, 2014

Reporting Suspected Tax Fraud

There are times when it may be necessary to report tax fraud, stolen identity, or some other matter to the IRS.  A summary of how to make these reports and forms to use can be found  here.

Monday, August 26, 2013

IRS Processing Codes and Information - 2012

The IRS has published IRS Processing Codes and Information - 2012.  This is a good source of information.  The ADP Book (Doc 6209), as it is known, can be found here.

Friday, January 4, 2013

IRS Releases New Form 433-A and 433-B

The IRS revised two forms used when obtaining financial information to determine how taxpayers can settle their tax liabilities: Form 433-A and Form 433-B.  An updated Publication 1854 and a new Publication 5059 are also available.  See more here.

IRS Releases New Withholding Guidance for 2013

IRS Provides Updated Withholding Guidance for 2013
IR-2013-1, Jan. 3, 2013 — The IRS released updated income-tax withholding tables for 2013 reflecting this week’s changes by Congress. See here.


IRS Provides Guidance on Withholding in 2013
IR-2012-105, Dec. 31, 2012 — The IRS released new income-tax withholding tables for 2013 and issued special instructions on implementing new income tax and Social Security tax rates. See here.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012